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supported_hardware:apc [2018/10/02 10:56]
James Sentman created
supported_hardware:apc [2020/02/18 18:46] (current)
James Sentman [Install APCUPSD]
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 There is a rather severe problem with connecting a UPS directly to a Mac OS Server. (not MacOSX Server, but any Mac acting as a server) You might wonder why you wouldn’t want to just connect the UPS to the computer? It will shut it down properly then and all will be well. Except that if you have the energy saver preferences set up to properly shut down your computer then it will not restart when the power comes back. There is a setting for most Macs to “restart after a power failure” but this only works if you let the power actually be pulled and NOT do a proper shutdown. The bug in MacOS is that this doesn’t work if you have a UPS connected to the machine! This has been broken for several major OS versions now. If you are running a Mac server and wish to use a UPS then you don’t actually want the UPS connected to the Mac or it will not restart without you there to push the button. There is a rather severe problem with connecting a UPS directly to a Mac OS Server. (not MacOSX Server, but any Mac acting as a server) You might wonder why you wouldn’t want to just connect the UPS to the computer? It will shut it down properly then and all will be well. Except that if you have the energy saver preferences set up to properly shut down your computer then it will not restart when the power comes back. There is a setting for most Macs to “restart after a power failure” but this only works if you let the power actually be pulled and NOT do a proper shutdown. The bug in MacOS is that this doesn’t work if you have a UPS connected to the machine! This has been broken for several major OS versions now. If you are running a Mac server and wish to use a UPS then you don’t actually want the UPS connected to the Mac or it will not restart without you there to push the button.
  
-===Raspberry Pi and APCUPSD to the rescue===+====Raspberry Pi and APCUPSD to the rescue====
  
 {{ :​supported_hardware:​pinode.jpg?​direct&​400|}}By loading up a Raspberry Pi and installing the apcupsd you can monitor any number of UPS’s without having to have them physically connected to another full sized computer. This is one of my remote nodes and an older Pi, even the oldest Pi’s will work fine for this as no speedy processors are needed. A Pi Zero W is an excellent choice but does require a USB adaptor or a specialty USB cable to get it connected to the UPS since it only has a micro usb port on it. I used [[https://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​B00YOX4JU6/​|these]] and then a regular usb cable connected to it.  {{ :​supported_hardware:​pinode.jpg?​direct&​400|}}By loading up a Raspberry Pi and installing the apcupsd you can monitor any number of UPS’s without having to have them physically connected to another full sized computer. This is one of my remote nodes and an older Pi, even the oldest Pi’s will work fine for this as no speedy processors are needed. A Pi Zero W is an excellent choice but does require a USB adaptor or a specialty USB cable to get it connected to the UPS since it only has a micro usb port on it. I used [[https://​www.amazon.com/​gp/​product/​B00YOX4JU6/​|these]] and then a regular usb cable connected to it. 
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 Once you’ve done all this you can be done with the GUI interface. You can also use the raspi-config app or the settings in the GUI to set the pi to boot into a command line instead of the graphic interface. This will save you some memory and CPU cycles as you’re not going to be using that for the most part. You can now ssh from your Mac into the Pi to complete the config. You’ll use the hostname you set above with a command similar to “ssh pi@yournewhostname.local"​ Once you’ve done all this you can be done with the GUI interface. You can also use the raspi-config app or the settings in the GUI to set the pi to boot into a command line instead of the graphic interface. This will save you some memory and CPU cycles as you’re not going to be using that for the most part. You can now ssh from your Mac into the Pi to complete the config. You’ll use the hostname you set above with a command similar to “ssh pi@yournewhostname.local"​
  
-===Give Your Pi a Static IP===+====Give Your Pi a Static IP====
 This is important so that XTension can connect to the apcupsd program. Yes, you just connected to your Pi via SSH and the hostname but that doesn’t appear to work for other connections. It seems that it only advertises an IPv6 address for the .local hostname and we cannot connect to the apcupsd via IPv6. If someone knows how to configure it to also register it’s IPv4 address then please let me know as that would make the static IP unnecessary. This is important so that XTension can connect to the apcupsd program. Yes, you just connected to your Pi via SSH and the hostname but that doesn’t appear to work for other connections. It seems that it only advertises an IPv6 address for the .local hostname and we cannot connect to the apcupsd via IPv6. If someone knows how to configure it to also register it’s IPv4 address then please let me know as that would make the static IP unnecessary.
  
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 static ip_address=192.168.0.91/​24 static ip_address=192.168.0.91/​24
 static routers=192.168.0.1 static routers=192.168.0.1
-status ​domain_name_server=192.168.0.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:​42f8:​caae:​d92e::​1+static ​domain_name_server=192.168.0.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:​42f8:​caae:​d92e::​1
 </​code>​ </​code>​
  
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 static domain_name_servers=192.168.0.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:​42f8:​caae:​d92e::​1 static domain_name_servers=192.168.0.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:​42f8:​caae:​d92e::​1
 </​code>​ </​code>​
 +notice that the line for the static ip6 address is not uncommented,​ there is no need to force a static IPv6 address leave that line commented out.
  
 reboot the pi via “sudo reboot” and then reconnect via ssh when it comes back up with it’s new static IP address. reboot the pi via “sudo reboot” and then reconnect via ssh when it comes back up with it’s new static IP address.
  
-===Install APCUPSD===+====Install APCUPSD====
  
 To install [[http://​www.apcupsd.org|apcupsd]] run the command: To install [[http://​www.apcupsd.org|apcupsd]] run the command:
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 sudo nano /​etc/​default/​apcupsd sudo nano /​etc/​default/​apcupsd
  
-and change the single line from “isconfigured=no” to “isconfigured=yet” and save the file.+and change the single line from “isconfigured=no” to “isconfigured=yes” and save the file.
  
-===Configure APCUPSD===+====Configure APCUPSD====
 There are several lines in the configuration file that need to be changed. Most of the options in the file are only needed if you’re trying to use it with older serially connected UPS models. Thats much more complicated because in the past APC purposefully changed pin outs and other requirements to connect so that they could sell you a custom cable. The setup is very model dependent and beyond the scope of this document. If at all possible use a USB connected APC ups. Here’s an excuse to buy a new one.  There are several lines in the configuration file that need to be changed. Most of the options in the file are only needed if you’re trying to use it with older serially connected UPS models. Thats much more complicated because in the past APC purposefully changed pin outs and other requirements to connect so that they could sell you a custom cable. The setup is very model dependent and beyond the scope of this document. If at all possible use a USB connected APC ups. Here’s an excuse to buy a new one. 
  
-Change the following lines as described. If the lines are commented out with a hash at the beginning remove that before changing the value to make it live.+Change the following lines as described. If the lines are commented out with a hash at the beginning remove that before changing the value to make it live. Note that many of the sections in the configuration file begin with the same command as you must edit, The parameter after it will be named inside of <>​’s for example: # UPSNAME <​name>​ that is not the line you wish to edit, scroll past that and the description of the setting in the file to find the real line you must edit at the bottom of each section.
  
 Edit the file via:  Edit the file via: 
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 sudo nano /​etc/​apcupsd/​apcupsd.conf sudo nano /​etc/​apcupsd/​apcupsd.conf
  
-uncomment and edit the following lines:+uncomment ​if necessary ​and edit the following lines:
  
 UPSNAME (give it a short meaningful name, like main or myups or office or attic or something) UPSNAME (give it a short meaningful name, like main or myups or office or attic or something)
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 NETSERVER on (this is important it’s how XTension will connect to it) NETSERVER on (this is important it’s how XTension will connect to it)
 NISIP 0.0.0.0 (this defaults to the 127.0.0.1 address meaning that it will only accept connections from the local host. If you want to be able to connect to it from XTension you must set it to 0.0.0.0) NISIP 0.0.0.0 (this defaults to the 127.0.0.1 address meaning that it will only accept connections from the local host. If you want to be able to connect to it from XTension you must set it to 0.0.0.0)
-NISPORT 3551 (this is the default, don’t change it but remember it as you’ll have to enter it into XTension ​shortly)+NISPORT 3551 (this is the default, don’t change it, If you have to change ​it you can enter the port in XTension’s setup for this interface)
  
  
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 </​code>​ </​code>​
  
-If you see that “STATUS:​ONLINE” message then it is talking to your UPS and you’re ready to setup XTension to talk to it.+If you see that “STATUS:​ONLINE” message then your pi is setup properly and your UPS is communicating.
  
-===XTension Setup===+====Install User Scripts==== 
 +The purpose of installing this script is to keep the apc software from doing a normal shutdown of the pi and also to broadcast power fail and other events to XTension when they happen without waiting for the next poll of apcaccess. If you allow the apc software to operate normally it will shutdown the pi and kill the power from the UPS before the batteries are fully used up. Adding these scripts keeps that from happening in addition to sending powerfail, battery replacement and other events to XTension immediately.
  
-{{:​supported_hardware:​apcsetup.png?​direct&​400 |}} Create ​new interface in XTension and select “APC UPS Status” ​from the Device popup. Enter the static IP address you just gave to your Pi above and then the port. If you didn’t ​change ​it in the configuration file then it’s ​running on port 3551. Give the interface a descriptive name so that you can tell all your UPS’s apart. Click the save button, find the new interface in the Interface Status window ​and check it’s enabled checkbox to start it up.+To install these you will download ​python script ​from this site, change it’s ​properties ​so that it is executable ​and run it with the install switch like this:
  
-===XTension Units===+<​code>​ 
 +cd /​etc/​apcupsd 
 +sudo curl -o ./​xtevent.py http://​machomeautomation.com/​files/​apc/​xtevent 
 +# at this point you may view the script so that you understand what it is doing if you wish 
 +sudo chmod a+x ./​xtevent.py 
 +# and finally run the install 
 +sudo ./​xtevent.py install 
 +</​code>​ 
 +The install moves any default scripts to *.orig and creates several sym links to the xtevent.py script so that it will be invoked for every known UPS event. After doing this your raspberry pi install is completely and you can setup the interface in XTension to talk to it and watch for events. 
 + 
 + 
 +====XTension Setup==== 
 + 
 +{{:​supported_hardware:​apcsetup.png?​direct&​425 |}} Create a new interface in XTension and select “APC UPS Status” from the Device popup. Enter the static IP address you just gave to your Pi above and then the port. If you didn’t change it in the configuration file then it’s running on port 3551. Give the interface a descriptive name so that you can tell all your UPS’s apart. 
 + 
 +Set the polling times. You can set separate polling times for when the power is on and then the power is off. I don’t need to see every single change in load when things are working fine and so the default for AC On Polling time is 30 seconds. Once the power goes off though I want to see updates to the battery charge and time left more often so the default for polling times when the power is off is every 10 seconds. When the interface is running you can manually poll it for new information with the Poll Now button. 
 + 
 +The Event Broadcast Port is set by the xtevent.py script you installed above. Immediate events are sent to XTension via a UDP broadcast on this port. If you change this port in XTension then you must edit the xtevent.py script on your raspberry pi to match or you won’t receive any realtime events. 
 + 
 +Click the save button, find the new interface in the Interface Status window and check it’s enabled checkbox to start it up. 
 +====XTension Units====
 {{ :​supported_hardware:​apcunits.png?​direct&​650|}} Once the interface is enabled and running you will be presented with a list of units created automatically by the interface. They will be given a default name that is based on the name you gave the interface and then the function. {{ :​supported_hardware:​apcunits.png?​direct&​650|}} Once the interface is enabled and running you will be presented with a list of units created automatically by the interface. They will be given a default name that is based on the name you gave the interface and then the function.
    
-**AC Power**: shows online and is in an on state as long as the AC power is available. ​Since I’m polling ​the UPS relatively slowly it may not catch very short interruptions in power. If you need an immediate event about the loss and restoration of power let me know as that can probably ​be done through further software ​on the Pi. You may wish to change the default colors for this unit so that it displays green when the power is on and red when the power is off as it’s the off state that is the warning state.+**AC Power**: shows online and is in an on state as long as the AC power is available. ​This is updated by the realtime user scripts we installed on the pi and also from polling. This way you can catch very short power failures that would not have been caught due to the normal intermittent polling. Note that in order to receive these real time events XTension and your UPS monitor Pi must be on the same subnet. You may wish to change the default colors for this unit so that it displays green when the power is on and red when the power is off as it’s the off state that is the warning state.
  
 **Error**: sometimes the software will append an error message to the status line. I have seen “LOWBATT” when my ups battery wasn’t going to be able to service the high load. This unit will display either “none” or the message sent. It will be off as long as there is no error and will turn on to alert you that the UPS has sent some error message. Use the On script to notify yourself of an error message from the UPS. Note that this is not the same as a failed battery self test, that message handled separately see the “Self Test Failure” unit below. **Error**: sometimes the software will append an error message to the status line. I have seen “LOWBATT” when my ups battery wasn’t going to be able to service the high load. This unit will display either “none” or the message sent. It will be off as long as there is no error and will turn on to alert you that the UPS has sent some error message. Use the On script to notify yourself of an error message from the UPS. Note that this is not the same as a failed battery self test, that message handled separately see the “Self Test Failure” unit below.
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 **Self Test Failure**: If no self test has been run since the program connected then this unit will be in an off state and show “none”. Once a test has been run while it’s watching the unit label will change to “OK” unless there is a problem. If a self test failure of the battery or the load or whatever happens the label will change to the error message and the unit will turn on. Use the on script to notify yourself of a failed self test. **Self Test Failure**: If no self test has been run since the program connected then this unit will be in an off state and show “none”. Once a test has been run while it’s watching the unit label will change to “OK” unless there is a problem. If a self test failure of the battery or the load or whatever happens the label will change to the error message and the unit will turn on. Use the on script to notify yourself of a failed self test.
  
-===History=== +**On Battery**: When the power has been out long enough for the UPS to be sure it isn’t a self test this unit will turn on. This is usually 5 or 6 seconds after a power failure. This will not turn on for power failure events shorter than that duration. This could be useful as you might turn off loads that are plugged into the UPS that are not necessary in a long term power failure condition to reduce the load and increase the runtime. 
-The apcupsd plugin first appeared in XTension 9.4.12 on Oct 2nd 2018 and is written by James Sentman+ 
 +**Charging**:​ Once power has returned and the UPS has switched off the On Battery unit this unit will turn on until the batteries are fully charged. 
 + 
 +If your device supports these additional readings then units to create them will be setup as well. Most simpler units do not support these. 
 + 
 +**Output Voltage**: The voltage actually being supplied by the UPS to your equipment. 
 + 
 +**Internal Temperature**:​ The Internal or battery temperature of the device. 
 + 
 +**Ambient Temperature**:​ The external temperature of the room. 
 + 
 +**Humidity**:​ The humidity of the room. 
 + 
 +====Interface Script==== 
 + 
 +If you have installed the user scripts above then you can trap all broadcast events from the UPS inside the Interface Script. In the Edit Interface window click the “Edit” button for the interface script. Then use the “Insert...” toolbar button to insert the “UPS Event Handler” The AppleScript code that is inserted will give you a full list of the known events though depending on your model there may be others that could be sent as well. 
 + 
 +Some of the events are also reflected as Unit changes such as the power fail and error messages. Others can only be caught by installing this handler. 
 + 
 +<​code>​ 
 +(* 
 + U P S   E V E N T   H A N D L E R 
 +  
 + Called when the UPS sends a broadcast event. This is where you  
 + can trap events other than those that have units associated 
 + with them. In order to receive these you must have installed the 
 + xtevent script on the raspberry pi. 
 +  
 + EventName will be one of the following:​ 
 +  
 + annoyme  
 + If we were letting the UPS shutdown our machine this is the alert that it is about 
 + to happen. The events scripts stop the shutdown from happening however. 
 + changeme 
 + The battery needs changing. If we were allowing system shutdown that would happen next. 
 + This event also turns on the ERROR unit. 
 + commfailure 
 + The UPS is no longer responding, possibly unplugged the USB cable? 
 + This event also turns on the ERROR unit. 
 + commok 
 + Only sent after a commfailure event, the UPS is now responding. 
 + doshutdown 
 + When the config time limits or battery levels have dropped to the point that if it 
 + were automatically going to shutdown it would now be doing so. 
 + emergency 
 + While in the software, nobody knows what would generate an emergency shutdown. 
 + failing 
 + The batteries are exhausted. The next event will be doshutdown. 
 + loadlimit 
 + The battery charge is below the low limit set in the config file. 
 + The next event will be doshutdown 
 + powerout 
 + This is sent immediately when the power fails. It can also be generated during 
 + a self test of the UPS. 
 + onbattery 
 + Send 5 or 6 seconds after the powerout event if the power has not returned.  
 + This could be used to filter self test events. The timing of this can be set 
 + in the config file. 
 + offbattery 
 + Send when power returns but only if the power has been off long enough to generate 
 + the onbattery event. 
 + mainsback 
 + The power has returned 
 + runlimit 
 + The Time Left property of the battery has fallen below the configured value. 
 + timeout 
 + The maximum time on battery value in the configuration has expired. 
 + startselftest 
 + A self test has been detected. This may not be reliable depending on the onbattery timing 
 + endselftest 
 + The end of a self test has been detected. 
 + battdetatch 
 + The batteries have been disconnected 
 + battattach 
 + The batteries are reconnected 
 +*) 
 + 
 +on UPSEvent( EventName) 
 +  write log "UPS Event Received: " & EventName 
 +end UPSEvent 
 + 
 + 
 +</​code>​ 
 + 
 +====History==== 
 +  ​* ​The apcupsd plugin first appeared in XTension 9.4.12 on Oct 2nd 2018 and is written by James Sentman 
 +  * Version 2.0 of the plugin added support for realtime event reception of power fails and other messages. It also stops the ups software from shutting down the pi and killing the power from the UPS early. It was released in XTension version 9.4.13 in November of 2018. 
supported_hardware/apc.1538477766.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/10/02 10:56 by James Sentman